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A regulation is a general statement issued by an agency, board, or commission that has the force and effect of law. Click here for a graphical illustration of this process.Many laws passed by Congress give Federal agencies some flexibility in deciding how best to implement those laws. In issuing a final rule, the agency must describe and respond to the public comments it received. What is the Administrative Procedure Act and why is it important? The APA governs the process by which Federal agencies propose and establish new regulations. Through the APA and other laws, Congress also establishes the procedures that govern agency rulemaking. OIRA is part of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which is an agency within the Executive Office of the President. Executive Order 12866, "Regulatory Planning and Review," issued by President Clinton on September 30, 1993, establishes and governs the process under which OIRA reviews agency draft and proposed final regulatory actions.It provides a formal means of organizing the evidence on the key effects - both good and bad - of the various alternatives that should be considered in developing regulations.Among the purposes are (1) to learn if the quantitative and qualitative benefits of an action are likely to justify the costs, (2) to promote accountability to the public, and (3) to discover which of various possible alternatives would produce the highest net-benefits.Among other things, the Dashboard graphically displays regulatory actions under review by agency, length of review, economic significance, and stage of rulemaking.The information on OIRA's website includes reports, policies, and guidance to agencies.Second, agencies are directed to attempt to reduce "redundant, inconsistent, or overlapping requirements," in part by working with one another to simplify and harmonize rules.Third, agencies are directed to identify and consider flexible approaches to regulatory problems, including warnings and disclosure requirements. Executive Order 12866 assigns OIRA the responsibility of coordinating interagency Executive Branch review of significant regulations before publication.

Please provide the name of the regulatory action you or your group would like to discuss. What are OIRA's disclosure and transparency policies? Reg includes a "Regulatory Dashboard," which provides information about regulatory actions under OIRA review.

What does it mean when a regulatory action is determined to be "significant? Under Executive Order 12866, OIRA is responsible for determining which agency regulatory actions are "significant" and, in turn, subject to interagency review.

Significant regulatory actions are defined in the Executive Order as those that: Have an annual effect on the economy of 0 million or more or adversely affect in a material way the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or tribal governments or communities; The Executive Order requires that significant regulatory actions be reviewed by OIRA before they are published in the Federal Register or otherwise issued to the public.

This guidance was designed to assist regulatory agencies by defining good regulatory analysis and by standardizing the measurement and reporting of the benefits and costs of Federal regulatory actions. You can find OIRA's annual report to Congress on the costs and benefits of Federal rules at: https:// . OIRA is part of the Executive Office of the President; are OIRA employees political appointees of the President? All OIRA professionals possess graduate level degrees and have historically come from backgrounds in economics, law, policy analysis, statistics, and information technology.

Before finalizing this Circular, OMB subjected a draft to peer review and solicited public comments. Does OIRA provide summary information on the costs and benefits of significant regulatory actions.? With the growth of science-based regulation and information-quality issues, several staff also have expertise in public health, toxicology, epidemiology, engineering, and other technical fields. Does OIRA talk to or meet with particular interest groups during review of its rules? OIRA's policy is to meet with any party interested in discussing issues on a rule under review, whether they are from State or local governments, small business or other business interests, or from the environmental, health, or safety communities.

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