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The geological relationships of the various formations are quite clear.
The lava flows which spill into the canyon must be younger than the canyon.
However, this sampling technique was known by mainstream geologists to behave in this manner long before Austin published on the topic, and this behavior is often intentionally used by geologists.
Austin was aware of this, as his 1988 reference to Faure shows. Unfortunately, it was submitted anonymously and it didn't address the key issues above.
During fractional crystallization, Sr tends to be come concentrated in plagioclase, leaving Rb in the liquid phase.
Hence, the Rb/Sr ratio in residual magma may increase over time, resulting in rocks with increasing Rb/Sr ratios with increasing differentiation. If the initial amount of Sr is known or can be extrapolated, the age can be determined by measurement of the Rb and Sr concentrations and the Sr ratio.
A figure expressible in billions of years is ideal.
In the Rb-Sr method, we used Sr, and it will be equally valid.
Austin says that his isochron age is the result of a "" (1992, p. In other words, Austin claims that he has produced a seemingly reliable isochron age which must necessarily be wrong, and therefore the Rb-Sr isochron dating method, which is considered to be among the more reliable of radiometric dating methods, must be considered suspect.The ICR's Grand Canyon Dating Project does not strike a telling blow against the reliability of isochron dating.The conditions which caused the "false isochron" in this case are fairly well-understood, and easy to avoid by proper sample selection.An angular unconformity is the result of tilting and eroding of the lower layers before the upper ones are deposited.These tilted and eroded layers are Precambrian in age (blue in Figure 1, above).